Technical Resources

We have gathered together a number of technical resources for use as reference on electrical projects.

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Hazardous Area

Atmospheric conditionAreu00a0commonly referred to as ambient temperatures and pressures. That is to say temperatures of u201320u00b0C to 40u00b0C and pressures of 0.8 to 1.1 bar.
DSEARThe Dangerous Substances and Explosive Atmospheres Regulations 2002
Explosive AtmosphereA mixture of dangerous substances with air, under atmospheric conditionis, in the form of gases, vapours, mist of dust in which, after ignition has occurred combustion spreads to the entire unburned mixture.
Hazardous AreaPlace where an explosive atmosphere may occur in quanitites that require special precautions to protect the health and safety of workers
Non-Hazardous AreaA place where an explosive atmosphere is not expected to occur in quantities that require such special precautions
Special PrecautionsPrecautions to control potential ignition sources within a hazardous area, particularly in relation to the construction, installation and use of equipment.

Lighting Genenral

CFLCompact Fluorescent Lamp Miniature u00adu2010 Compact fluorescent lamps, 9 to 55w
Colour AppearanceThe visual appearance of the colour of the light given out by the lamp. Usually described as Warm or cool etc. Often given as colour temperature. arm would be in the region of 3000 Kelvin, cool in the region of 4000 Kelvin Efficacy
EfficacyThe ratio of light output, measured in lumens, to the amout of power used by the lamp to produce the light, including any power consumed by the control gear if used. Generally expressed in Lumens / Watts.
GLSGeneral Lighting Service -u00adu2010 Simple Tungsten Lamps
Kelvin A temperature scale broadly similar to centigrade, but starting from absolute zero (-u00adu2010273 centigrade). Thus 1000 degrees C is equal to 1273 degrees Kelvin.
Light OutputThe amount of light measured in lumens that the lamp emits under normal conditions. Measured after 100 hours burning in case of dischage lighting.
PAR LampParabolic Aluminised Reflector Lamps -u00adu2010 Tungsten Lamps in a heavy duty spot form
Service PeriodThe average life in the case of tungsten lamps, or the number of hours after which discharge lamps should be changed as to give a resonable return of light for energy used.

Lighting – Emergency

Anti Panic LightingThe part of the emergency escape lighting provided to avoid panic and provide illumination to allow people to reach a place where an escape route can be found.
Ballast Lumen Factor (BLF)The ratio of the light output of the lamp when the ballast is operated at its design voltage compared with the output of the same lamp operated with the appropriate ballast supplied at its rated voltage and frequency.
BS EN60598-u00adu20102-u00adu201022:1999This is British European luminaire product standard.
BS5266The British Standard for emergency lighting, it has now been revised to conform with the European Standard EN1838. It is now issued in the UK under the reference BS EN 1838 / BS5266 Part 7.
Central Battery SystemA system where the batteries for a number of fittings are housed in one location, usually for all of the fittings in one sub-u00adu2010circuit.
Central TestA testing systems for a wide range of applications operating on 24v, 50v or 110v as well as Static Invertor projects.
Combined Emergency Fitting (Sustained)A light fitting containing two or more lamps at least one of which is energised from the emergency supply, the remaining lamps are supplied from the normal supply.
Conversion KitA product used to provide standard mains luminaries -u00adu2010 including low voltage -u00adu2010 with an emergency back up should the mains power fail
Emergency ExitA way out intended to be used at any time. Final Exit is the terminal point of an escape route at which persons are no longer in danger from any hazard requiring evacuation of the building
Escape Route LightingProvided to ensure the means of escape can be effectively identified and used
Externally Illuminated Safety SignA sign that is illuminated when it is required by an external source.
'F' MarkShows the luminaire can be mounted on flammable surfaces
High Risk Area LightingThe part of escape route lighting provided at a potentially dangerous location to enable proper shutdown procedures for the safety of the operator and other occupants of the building.
Housing 850oC TestAll emergency luminaries on escape routes must pass this test. Selfu2010extinguishing grades of plastic must be used.
ICEL 1001Registration is the industry standard of approval for photometric claimed data and performance of emergency lighting equipment which is tested by the BSI>
ICEL 1004The industry standard and accepted practice for the conversion of mains luminaries to having an emergency battery powered back up.
Internally Illuminated Safety SignA sign that is illuminated, when it is required by an internal source
K FactorThe ratio between the light output from the lamp in the worst condition, normally at end of discharge and with cable volt drop, to the light output at nominal voltage.
Maintained Emergency LightingA light fitting containing one or more lamps all of which operate from both he normal and emergency supply at all times.
Mounting HeightThe vertical distance between the light fitting and the floor
Nonu2010maintained Emergency LightingA light fitting containing one or more lamps all of which operate from the emergency supply only following the failure of the mains supply.
Normal LightingAll permanently installed artificial lighting operating from the mains supply for use when inadequate lighting is available during occupation of the building.
Rated DurationThe manufacturer's declared duration for a battery operated emergency light. Typically one to three hours when fully charged.
Rated LoadThe maximum load which may be connected to the system which will be supplied for the rated duration.
Reu2010Charge PeriodThe time taken for the batteries to regain sufficient capacity to achieve their rated duration
Safety SignA sign which gives a general safety message, obtained by a combination of colour and geometric shape and which by the addition of a graphic symbol or text, gives a particular safety message (ISO 3864: 1984 )
Self Contained Emergency Light FittingA fitting or sign providing maintained, non-u00adu2010maintained or combined emergency lighting in which all of the operating components are within 1 meter of the housing.
Self TestA testing system for a wide range of self contained luminaries
Slave FittingAn emergency light fitting without it's own batteries that is design to work within a central battery system
Standby LightingThat part of emergency lighting provided to enable normal activities to continue substantially unchanged (IEC 50 Chapter 845)
Static InvertorA central systems which enables mains luminaries to be utilised as emergency fittings without the need for additional wiring.
Sustained Emergency LightingSee combined emergency lighting
Uniformity RatioThe ratio between maximum to minimum illuminance measured at the working plane.
Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)A versatile method of providing back up power and or steady, constant mains supply to specific applications such as I.T. and telephones as well as being used to provide an emergency lighting facility in certain installations.
Utilisation Factor At Zero Reflectance (U.F.O.)Determines the proportion of light output from a lamp that falls directly on the floor for different room indexes and types of diffuser.

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